Introduction Man is a social being, which means friendships and relations have been in existence between humans since the beginning of human creation, arguably the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle once said "man by nature is a political animal". However, diplomatic relations were established with the coming of colonial officers with such establishments like the consular authority in 1847 and the famous amalgamation of 1914. The probability for carrying out such acts is very high because Nigeria " s national interest lacks proper codification and documentation. 139 . London: Macmillian. It does not suggest what the " interests " should be, but argues for intelligible national interest for direction, focus and attention to topmost priorities in the country " s external relations. It will explain why IR It gives a useful balance of analysis on socio-cultural and environmental dynamics which transcend national boundaries, such as the influx and out-flux of refugee flows, insurgency, transnational conflict and crime in the Sahel. It found out that the foreign policy initiatives of President Jonathan are focused more than ever before on Nigeria’s domestic priorities especially as captured in the vision 20:2020 document. Students pursuing international relations and foreign policy-related courses must have to deal with such kind of assignments. As a result, Nigeria as a colonial state was brought into the diplomatic world not as an independent state. decisions about its national life. Pre-Theories and Theories of Foreign Policy-Making provides the first comprehensive theoretical study focusing only on United States policy toward the Nigerian/Biafran conflict, which occurred from 1967-1970. The goal of this study is to illustrate the factors which, within one year, led to a change from public, proactive and internationalist policy to a secret, reactive and realist approach. As the country matured as an independent and sovereign nation, other philosophical principles that became part of Nigeria’s foreign policy fundamentals are enlightened national interest, African solidarity, interdependence, internationalism, asymmetric world order and … A constant feature that has remained central to Nigeria’s foreign policy architecture has been Africa, with preoccupations concerning fighting colonialism, apartheid and the discrimination of black peoples in the African continent and elsewhere in the world. Our contention in this work is to highlight the consistency of Nigeria with foreign policies. Nigerian Foreign Policy, foreign relations. The findings also shows that more than external challenges, it is the internal challenges that are dampening Nigeria's attainment of positive international image and national transformation. Services . He considers many historical successes and failures, including the onset of friendship between the United States and Great Britain in the early twentieth century, the Concert of Europe, which preserved peace after 1815 but collapsed following revolutions in 1848, and the remarkably close partnership of the Soviet Union and China in the 1950s, which descended into open rivalry by the 1960s.In a world where conflict among nations seems inescapable,How Enemies Become Friendsoffers critical insights for building lasting peace. Which, foreign policy became obvious, that it was not anti. Damilola and the theoretical model developed by Charles F. Hermann in his article "Changing Course: When Governments Choose to Redirect Foreign Policy", attempting to answer the following question: which are the most influential factors in shaping Nigeria"s foreign policy since independence? Theory and Reality in Foreign Policy Making: Nigeriaafter the Second Republic (Atlantic Highland, Humanities Press International, 1989) pp. thirteenth century through the present, foreign policy expert Charles Kupchan explores how adversaries can transform enmity into amity--and he exposes prevalent myths about the causes of peace.Kupchan contends that diplomatic engagement with rivals, far from being appeasement, is critical to rapprochement between adversaries. Mohammad Zaki bin Ahmad. The Uses and Abuses of Amity in Mid-Tudor Diplomacy, 1542–1560. Nigeria tower far above any other African country. Why do states behave the way they do is the question that theories of international relations and theories of foreign policy are trying to answer. It sets out to explain these changes and classify them through the analysis of Ogidan.P. Boston University Libraries. Identifying the welfare of the State and its people as the ultimate goal of foreign policy, it interrogated the relative extent this goal is the driving force of Nigeria’s foreign policy under Jonathan. This is because, there seems to be a debate as to whether Nigeria’s foreign policy has been consistent or it has been changing. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Keywords: atomic bomb, atom, Great Britain, parliament, foreign policy, 1945, 1946, United States, Anglo-American relations. Such reality, as in the case of Nigeria, is the Boko Haram insurgency. colonial state was brought into the diplomatic world not as a, that define the objective a given state pursues in process of its interactions with other, related to external relations developed by decision makers aimed at, But on the other hand, Olusanya and Akindele, economic well-being of the Nigerian citizens an, undertaking an analysis of Nigeria foreign polic, matters, theories become useful tools. The recent discovered state of t, influence on the country‟s foreign policy at the time. Ultimately, it argues that the Stevenson campaign’s failure to forge an effective position highlights the problematic relationship between domestic policies and foreign relations. Pre Theories And Theories Of Foreign Policy Making Pre Theories And Theories Of Foreign Policy Making by Emmanuel N. Amadife. At least since the end of World War II, foreign policy thinking has been dominated by a realist (or neorealist) perspective in which states are taken as … Procedures like parliamentary questions and adjournment debates enhanced Parliament’s capability to supervise the government, which limited government’s options. Ile Ife: College Press. This, the paper argues, marks a shift in paradigm when compared with the past when African issues dominated Nigeria’s attention. stability and growth Nwankwo (Nwankwo O, 2013). While Africa remains the centre piece of our foreign policy, we cannot operate within a series of concentric circles which now effectively guides our behavior on the African and world scene. circumstances changed and it became necessary to reevaluate relationships abroad. The innermost circle represents Nigeria and its immediate neighbors; the second circle revolves around Nigeria’s relations with its west African neighbors; the third circle focuses on continental African issues; and the fourth circle involves Nigeria’s relations with entities outside Africa. Interest, Continuities and Flaws in Nigeria Foreign I claim that 1) in 1945-1946 there were five turning points when the British policy changed quite drastically back and forth. 3, Nigeria's foreign policy under the Buhari administration was essentially "Afro- centric," and premised on the theory of 'concentric circles" which reoriented national priorities in external relations to questions of the need to maintain good neighborly relations with Niger, Benin, Cameroon, Ghana and Chad. So this, During the first republic, what was prominent was pro-, government was precipitated by the action Fra, being imported through the ports by the for, civil servants of Grenada. … Previous research has presented limited views on British early atomic proliferation in the contexts of domestic policy and Anglo-American relations. Continuity and change in policy and Perceptions, In his comment, Dr. Okon Ankpo, the then Minister of External Affairs, said that “Nigeria’s foreign policy was constructed in concentric circles with Africa in the centre.” It was mere hype. Noting that challenges still abound in all sectors, the paper makes recommendations aimed at improving Nigeria’s chances of attaining the goals and objectives of Nigeria’s vision. Conceptualising national The notion of Parliament’s narrow role in foreign and defence policy has also been suggested in most research relating to parliamentary history. Nigeria Foreign Policy, 1960-2011: FiftyOne Years of Conceptual Confusion, Atah Pine. All of these contradicting paradigms affected the British government’s possibilities of conducting atomic foreign policy. However, focusing o, Council. Moreover, these changes and their causes contributed to the partial failure of the Anglo-American atomic collaboration in 1946. Can rival nations become partners and establish a lasting and stable peace?How Enemies Become Friendsprovides a bold and innovative account of how nations escape geopolitical competition and replace hostility with friendship. In negotiating amity diplomats appealed to moral, affective, and contractual obligations simultaneously. It is also the analysis problem. “a country’s foreign policy revolves around its national interests. A. The contention of the paper is that effective and proactive foreign policy articulation and implementation have profound effects on international image which could galvanize or impact on national transformation. • Rosenau, James 1966: Pre-theories and Theories of Foreign Policy, in R. B. Farrell (Hg. Occasional Paper Series (SAIIA) No, https://www.modernghana.com/news/354264/nigeria, International Image and National Transformation: A. government and politics. Navigate; Linked Data; Dashboard; Tools / Extras; Stats; Share . 5, issue 2, (October). It examines the post-Gaddafi Libya and its export of instability in the region. Nigeria since independence, lacks a coherent and well thought-out national ideology with which the interest of the country could be identified and pursued at all times. The study aimed at examining whether or not Nigeria’s foreign policy under former President onathan contributed in improving the image of Nigeria globally. These findings show the interdependence of the government, Parliament and officials in the atomic matters. structure and processes. Introduction. Download in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format for read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Secondly, Nigeria lacked the economic infrastructure to use economy as a major instrument of diplomatic engagement. Yunusa, M.H. The propelling force of a foreign policy of a state it"s the state"s national interest (Ade-Ibijola, Aderemi Opeyemi, 2013). The study is an assessment of Nigeria’s foreign policy under the administration of President Goodluck Jonathan in relation with ECOWAS. They did not acknowledge any categorical difference between emotive personal friendship and utilitarian public amity. This period is very important as it marked a radical turn in the country’s foreign policy. 4) This led to problems in implementing policy 5) The Americans were reluctant to continue the atomic co-operation and seem to have applied “atomic diplomacy” against the British in order to enhance their own position in the post-war world. The nature of regimes matters much less than commonly thought: countries, including the United States, should deal with other states based on their foreign policy behavior rather than on whether they are democracies. Using the decision-making theory South African Foreign Policy and African Drivers To this end, now the understanding of foreign policy, it"s that type of action a state embarks upon in its interactions with other member states in the international environment, in the process of striving to attain its goals and objectives. The chief proponent of this theory is Hans Morgenthau. q„$œ_iə¤ È3-ÔZœ$Q°Ê˜x‚š1›%Ik´šíÉ,YL¢Å’f»!Êh4 Z£‘̯¬dYK8ÓJí,Žqs‚G»±ù# '1¿'vaœ ‚#4Ù!0ƒ‘öÌ`F This paper builds its argument on the premise that a country " s national interest is pivotal to its foreign policy and national development. This was especially the case if two parties challenged a consensus in the international community. Keywords: Nigeria, National Interest, Foreign Policy, Abacha, Regime. Nigerian relations during the whole regime. For our purposes, we can consider them the same issue. It examines the broader regional implications of conflict due to refugee flows, proliferation of weapons and spill over effects of insecurity. Some of those challenges include leadership crisis, corruption, insurgency and terrorism amongst others. outside Africa. Conceptualising national interest in nigerian foreign policy: A focus on abacha regime, Abdulrasheed Adamu, Muhammad bin Muda, and Nigeria is an important actor on the African and global stage. It can also be seen as a set of principles that define the objective a given state pursues in process of its interactions with other international actors. ISSN 2289-1552 2016. They informed Clement Attlee’s government so that the regime changed its views and pursued secret atomic co-operation for gaining the atomic bomb. It was therefore recommended that major reorganization of the Foreign Service such that positions of the Ambassadors and other key positions will no longer be politicized and the government should integrate professional international public relations practitioners in its interaction with the international community in order to effectively boost the global image of the nation. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. This view has been repeated without any critical evaluation by other historians ever since. For the purpose of this paper, foreign policy is viewed as a strategic planned course of action that aims at achieving a particular goal based on specific reasons in the international and domestic system, at a particular point in time. Alao A (2011) Nigeria and the global powers: atomic matters and that everything was ran by the government or the Cabinet or the inner circle of the Cabinet. in Nigeria‟s foreign policy. The paper holds that there is a mix of internal causes and exogenous factors determining the course of Nigerian foreign policy. “Africa is the Cornerstone of Nigeria’s foreign policy” while the question of African United had become an “article of finth (Jibril, 2004). Damilola, 201, Thirdly, the term “area boy diplomacy” became famous, Nigeria‟s foreign relations, as was able to, program, which reverse the negative trend that. This empirical study uses formerly secret archival sources of the government, diplomatic correspondence, and Hansard Parliamentary debates, supplemented with press material. The paper models domestic (internal) and cross-border dynamics of instability through the lens of 'ABM modelling-AfriLand-Rebel'. Rather, they asserted that loving friends at once promoted each other’s strategic advantage and growth in virtue. Against the backdrop of Nigeria’s comprehensive framework for transforming herself into one of the twenty leading economies by the year 2020, this paper examines the foreign policy initiatives of current Nigeria’s President Goodluck Jonathan. All rights reserved. “We got our young man back”: A rescue in Nigeria gives Trump a late foreign policy win. Aside the fact that this is not good for a country that pursues an ambitious external agenda and incongruent with its stature in global politics; it also makes the concept and reality of national interest susceptible to personalized interpretations, manipulations and distortions by the different political regimes. the comity of nation and some major sanction were lifted. Damilola and t, attempting to answer the following question: which are the most influential factors in shaping. Notable scholars on Nigerian external relations such as Akinyemi, Aluko, Gambari, Birai etc demonstrated the influence of domestic conditions on the country’s attitude and behaviour to other actors in the international system. As such, Nigerian foreign policy didn"t just start at independence; it dates back to during the times of the Hausa emirates, the Igbo kingdoms, the Benin kingdom and the Oyo empires. -http://jesoc.com/wpcontent/uploads/2016/12/KC5_211.pdf, Overview of National Interest, Continuities and Flaws in Nigeria Foreign Policy, Ade-Ibijola, Aderemi Opeyemi. • *Hill, Christopher 2003: The Changing Politics of Foreign Policy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan • Hook, Steven 2002: Comparative Foreign Policy: Adaptation Strategies of the Great and Emerging Powers, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. He also argued on some characteristics as not been constituting core or vital elements, they are; defense, preservation and promotion of way of life of Nigerian"s especially its values of democracy, the development of the country"s stance in the comity of nations, particularly in Africa and promoting world peace. Click Download for free ebooks. 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